Time course of changes in the transcriptome during russet induction in apple fruit

verfasst von
Jannis Straube, Shreya Suvarna, Yun Hao Chen, Bishnu P. Khanal, Moritz Knoche, Thomas Debener

Background: Russeting is a major problem in many fruit crops. Russeting is caused by environmental factors such as wounding or moisture exposure of the fruit surface. Despite extensive research, the molecular sequence that triggers russet initiation remains unclear. Here, we present high-resolution transcriptomic data by controlled russet induction at very early stages of fruit development. During Phase I, a patch of the fruit surface is exposed to surface moisture. For Phase II, moisture exposure is terminated, and the formerly exposed surface remains dry. We targeted differentially expressed transcripts as soon as 24 h after russet induction. Results: During moisture exposure (Phase I) of ‘Pinova’ apple, transcripts associated with the cell cycle, cell wall, and cuticle synthesis (SHN3) decrease, while those related to abiotic stress increase. NAC35 and MYB17 were the earliest induced genes during Phase I. They are therefore linked to the initial processes of cuticle microcracking. After moisture removal (Phase II), the expression of genes related to meristematic activity increased (WOX4 within 24 h, MYB84 within 48 h). Genes related to lignin synthesis (MYB52) and suberin synthesis (MYB93, WRKY56) were upregulated within 3 d after moisture removal. WOX4 and AP2B3 are the earliest differentially expressed genes induced in Phase II. They are therefore linked to early events in periderm formation. The expression profiles were consistent between two different seasons and mirrored differences in russet susceptibility in a comparison of cultivars. Furthermore, expression profiles during Phase II of moisture induction were largely identical to those following wounding. Conclusions: The combination of a unique controlled russet induction technique with high-resolution transcriptomic data allowed for the very first time to analyse the formation of cuticular microcracks and periderm in apple fruit immediately after the onset of triggering factors. This data provides valuable insights into the spatial-temporal dynamics of russeting, including the synthesis of cuticles, dedifferentiation of cells, and impregnation of cell walls with suberin and lignin.

Institut für Pflanzengenetik
Institut für Gartenbauliche Produktionssysteme
BMC plant biology
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
Elektronische Version(en)
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-023-04483-6 (Zugang: Offen)