Greenhouse gases from agriculture

verfasst von
M. Zaman, K. Kleineidam, L. Bakken, J. Berendt, C. Bracken, K. Butterbach-Bahl, Z. Cai, S. X. Chang, T. Clough, K. Dawar, W. X. Ding, P. Dörsch, M. dos Reis Martins, C. Eckhardt, S. Fiedler, T. Frosch, J. Goopy, C. M. Görres, A. Gupta, S. Henjes, M. E.G. Hofmann, M. A. Horn, M. M.R. Jahangir, A. Jansen-Willems, K. Lenhart, L. Heng, D. Lewicka-Szczebak, G. Lucic, L. Merbold, J. Mohn, L. Molstad, G. Moser, P. Murphy, A. Sanz-Cobena, M. Šimek, S. Urquiaga, R. Well, N. Wrage-Mönnig, S. Zaman, J. Zhang, C. Müller

The rapidly changing global climate due to increased emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) is leading to an increased occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and heatwaves. The three major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The major natural sources of CO2 include ocean-atmosphere exchange, respiration of animals, soils (microbial respiration) and plants, and volcanic eruption; while the anthropogenic sources include burning of fossil fuel (coal, natural gas, and oil), deforestation, and the cultivation of land that increases the decomposition of soil organic matter and crop and animal residues. Natural sources of CH4 emission include wetlands, termite activities, and oceans. Paddy fields used for rice production, livestock production systems (enteric emission from ruminants), landfills, and the production and use of fossil fuels are the main anthropogenic sources of CH4. Nitrous oxide, in addition to being a major GHG, is also an ozone-depleting gas. N2O is emitted by natural processes from oceans and terrestrial ecosystems. Anthropogenic N2O emissions occur mostly through agricultural and other land-use activities and are associated with the intensification of agricultural and other human activities such as increased use of synthetic fertiliser (119.4 million tonnes of N worldwide in 2019), inefficient use of irrigation water, deposition of animal excreta (urine and dung) from grazing animals, excessive and inefficient application of farm effluents and animal manure to croplands and pastures, and management practices that enhance soil organic N mineralisation and C decomposition. Agriculture could act as a source and a sink of GHGs. Besides direct sources, GHGs also come from various indirect sources, including upstream and downstream emissions in agricultural systems and ammonia (NH3) deposition from fertiliser and animal manure.

Institut für Mikrobiologie
Externe Organisation(en)
Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation (IAEA)
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Universität Rostock
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
CAS - Institute of Atmospheric Physics
International Livestock Research Institute
Nanjing Normal University
University of Alberta
Lincoln University
NWFP Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)
Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
Technische Universität Darmstadt
Hochschule Geisenheim University
Independent Consultant
Picarro B.V., Eindhoven
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Fachhochschule Münster
University of Wrocław
Picarro, Inc.
Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA)
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)
University of South Bohemia
Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ländliche Räume, Wald und Fischerei
Universität Canterbury
Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)
University College Dublin
Beitrag in Buch/Sammelwerk
Anzahl der Seiten
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
Umweltwissenschaften (insg.), Ingenieurwesen (insg.), Agrar- und Biowissenschaften (insg.)
Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung
SDG 2 – Kein Hunger, SDG 13 – Klimaschutzmaßnahmen, SDG 15 – Lebensraum Land
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