Methodology for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils using non-isotopic techniques

verfasst von
M. Zaman, K. Kleineidam, L. Bakken, J. Berendt, C. Bracken, K. Butterbach-Bahl, Z. Cai, S. X. Chang, T. Clough, K. Dawar, W. X. Ding, P. Dörsch, M. dos Reis Martins, C. Eckhardt, S. Fiedler, T. Frosch, J. Goopy, C. M. Görres, A. Gupta, S. Henjes, M. E.G. Hofmann, M. A. Horn, M. M.R. Jahangir, A. Jansen-Willems, K. Lenhart, L. Heng, D. Lewicka-Szczebak, G. Lucic, L. Merbold, J. Mohn, L. Molstad, G. Moser, P. Murphy, A. Sanz-Cobena, M. Šimek, S. Urquiaga, R. Well, N. Wrage-Mönnig, S. Zaman, J. Zhang, C. Müller

Several approaches exist for measuring greenhouse gases (GHGs), mainly CO2, N2O, and CH4, from soil surfaces. The principle methods that are used to measure GHG from agricultural sites are chamber-based techniques. Both open and closed chamber techniques are in use; however, the majority of field applications use closed chambers. The advantages and disadvantages of different chamber techniques and the principal steps of operation are described. An important part of determining the quality of the flux measurements is the storage and the transportation of the gas samples from the field to the laboratory where the analyses are carried out. Traditionally, analyses of GHGs are carried out via gas chromatographs (GCs). In recent years, optical analysers are becoming increasingly available; these are user-friendly machines and they provide a cost-effective alternative to GCs. Another technique which is still under development, but provides a potentially superior method, is Raman spectroscopy. Not only the GHGs, but also N2, can potentially be analysed if the precision of these techniques is increased in future development. An important part of this chapter deals with the analyses of the gas concentrations, the calculation of fluxes, and the required safety measures. Since non-upland agricultural lands (i.e. flooded paddy soils) are steadily increasing, a section is devoted to the specificities of GHG measurements in these ecosystems. Specialised techniques are also required for GHG measurements in aquatic systems (i.e. rivers), which are often affected by the transfer of nutrients from agricultural fields and therefore are an important indirect source of emission of GHGs. A simple, robust, and more precise method of ammonia (NH3) emission measurement is also described.

Institut für Mikrobiologie
Externe Organisation(en)
International Atomic Energy Agency
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Universität Rostock
University College Dublin
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
CAS - Institute of Atmospheric Physics
International Livestock Research Institute
Nanjing Normal University
University of Alberta
Lincoln University
NWFP Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
Technische Universität Darmstadt
Hochschule Geisenheim University
Picarro B.V., Eindhoven
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Fachhochschule Münster
University of Wrocław
Picarro, Inc.
Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA)
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)
University of South Bohemia
Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ländliche Räume, Wald und Fischerei
University of Canterbury
Beitrag in Buch/Sammelwerk
Anzahl der Seiten
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
Umweltwissenschaften (insg.), Ingenieurwesen (insg.), Agrar- und Biowissenschaften (insg.)
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